Whats the Difference Between Selective Breeding and Genetic Engineering?
• The species used in selective breeding have common evolutionary origin, especially in interspecific breeding. In genetic engineering techniques, the genes can be taken from any species. Evolutionary origin or varieties of species are not considered here.
• Natural breeding takes place in selective breeding while artificial breeding takes place in genetic engineering. In the selective breeding, it only selects the parents considering their traits that allow them to breed on their own, but in genetic engineering, the genes are being transferred.
• To make GM plants or animals, the genes must be isolated from different organisms. This step does not take place in selective breeding.
• Endonuclease and ligase enzymes are used to make GM organisms. In selective breeding, no such enzyme is used.
• The traits are only being considered in selective breeding while the genes with a specific DNA sequence are being considered in genetic engineering.
• Unlike selective breeding, highly trained technicians are needed for genetic engineering.
• Expensive machineries with modern laboratories are needed to carry out genetic engineering process steps. Compared to genetic engineering, selective breeding is a less expensive method.
• The techniques of genetic engineering are difficult more than the techniques of selective breeding.
• Large output can be obtained from GM modified organisms (example: large crop from a certain plant species) more than from selectively bred organisms.
• Wide range of characteristics can be produced by genetic engineering techniques more than it can be by selective breeding.
• Genetically modified genes may have side effects unlike in selective breeding.
Selective Breeding vs Genetic Engineering
Gene manipulation techniques are often used in these days in order to produce certain organisms with specific genetic combinations. These techniques are being improved by scientists, and they have produced animals and plants with higher reproductive capacities, high disease resistance abilities, and other desirable characteristics. Cloning, selective breeding, and genetic engineering are the techniques that can be used to develop or produce such specialized genetically manipulated organisms.